Robert C. Green, MD, MPH
Robert C. Green, MD, MPH is a medical geneticist and physician-scientist who directs the G2P Research Program (genomes2people.org) in translational genomics and health outcomes in the Division of Genetics at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, the Broad Institute and Harvard Medical School. Dr. Green is internationally recognized for designing and conducting empirical research that is accelerating the responsible implementation of genomic medicine. He led the first experimental trials disclosing common complex disease risk (the REVEAL Study) and one of the first prospective studies of direct-to-consumer genetic testing services (the PGen Study). He currently leads and co-leads the first randomized trials to explore the implementation of medical sequencing in adults (the MedSeq Project) and newborns (the BabySeq Project), respectively.
Dr. Green was lead author on the influential recommendations for managing incidental findings in clinical sequencing from the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics and a co-author on recommendations for managing incidental findings in research biobanks among participants and family members of participants. He co-chairs both the Steering Committee of the NIH Consortium on Clinical Sequencing Exploratory Research (CSER) and the Steering Committee of the NIH Consortium in Newborn Sequencing in Genomic Medicine and Public Health (NSIGHT) and is a funded member of the Consortium on Electronic Medical Records and Genomics (eMERGE). He is a member of the Institute of Medicine Committee on the “Evidence Base for Genetic Testing” and collaborates on research studies with Illumina, 23andMe, Pathway and Google.
Dr. Green graduated from Amherst College and the University of Virginia School of Medicine, and earned a Masters of Public Health in epidemiology from Emory University School of Public Health. He obtained clinical specialty training at Harvard Medical School and is board certified in both neurology and medical genetics. He has been continuously funded by NIH for over 26 years and has published over 300 papers with an h index of 60. He was awarded the 2014 Coriell Award for Scientific Achievement in Personalized Medicine. He is currently Associate Director for Research of Partners HealthCare Personalized Medicine and a Board Member of the Council for Responsible Genetics.
Key scientific contributions include publication of the first randomized trials to assess the impact of common complex genetic risk markers, empirical studies describing the medical and behavioral outcomes of direct-to-consumer genetic testing, and design of a variant classification pipeline and a single page summary for reporting clinically relevant results of whole genome sequencing to physicians.
Dr. Green teaches medical students and mentors post-doctoral trainees and junior faculty in the clinical and research aspects of genomic medicine. Keynote and plenary presentations include the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics, Cold Spring Harbor, World Congress of Psychiatric Genetics, Human Genome Variation Society, European Society for Human Genetics, the Forbes Healthcare Summit, the World Science Festival and Festival of Genomics. His work has been featured on PBS radio and television documentaries, and repeatedly highlighted in NBC Nightly News, the Today Show, the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, Time Magazine, New Scientist, FastCompany, GenomeWeb and Buzzfeed.
Selected Clinical and Policy Publications in Genomic Medicine
Green RC, Annas GJ. The genetic privacy of presidential candidates. New England Journal of Medicine. 2008 Nov 20; 359(21):2192-3.
Frueh FW, Greely HT, Green RC, Hogarth S, Siegel S. The future of direct-to-consumer clinical genetic tests. Nature Review Genetics. 2011 Jul; 12(7):511-5.
Lewis MH, Scheurer ME, Green RC, McGuire AL. Research results: preserving newborn blood samples. Science Translational Medicine. 2012 Nov 7; 4(159):159cm12.
Wolf SM, Crock BN, Van Ness B, Lawrenz F, Kahn JP, Beskow LM, Cho MK, Christman MF, Green RC, Hall R, Illes J, Keane M, Knoppers BM, Koenig BA, Kohane IS, Leroy B, Maschke KJ, McGeveran W, Ossorio P, Parker LS, Petersen GM, Richardson HS, Scott JA, Terry SF, Wilfond BS, Wolf WA. Managing incidental findings and research results in genomic research involving biobanks and archived data sets. Genetics in Medicine. 2012 Apr; 14(4):361-84.
Green RC, Rehm HL, Kohane IS. Clinical Genome Sequencing. In: Ginsburg G, Willard H, editors. Genomic and Personalized Medicine. 2nd ed. San Diego: Academic Press/Elsevier; 2013.
Green RC, Berg JS, Grody WW, Kalia SS, Korf BR, Martin CL, McGuire AL, Nussbaum RL, O’Daniel JM, Ormond KE, Rehm HL, Watson MS, Williams MS, Biesecker LG. ACMG recommendations for reporting of incidental findings in clinical exome and genome sequencing. Genetics in Medicine. 2013 Jul; 15(7):565-74.
McGuire AL, Joffe S, Koenig BA, Biesecker BB, McCullough LB, Blumenthal-Barby JS, Caulfield T, Terry SF, Green RC. Point-counterpoint. Ethics and genomic incidental findings. Science. 2013 May 31; 340(6136):1047-8.
Lautenbach DM, Christensen KD, Sparks JA, Green RC. Communicating genetic risk information for common disorders in the era of genomic medicine. Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics. 2013; 14:491-513.
Green RC, Lupski JR, Biesecker LG. Reporting genomic sequencing results to ordering clinicians: incidental, but not exceptional. JAMA. 2013 Jul 24; 310(4):365-6.
Biesecker LG, Green RC. Diagnostic clinical genome and exome sequencing. New England Journal of Medicine. 2014 Jun 19; 370(25):2418-25.
Green RC, Farahany NA. Regulation: The FDA is overcautious on consumer genomics. Nature. 2014 Jan 16; 505(7483):286-7.
Green RC, Lautenbach D, McGuire AL: GINA, genetic discrimination, and genomic medicine. New England Journal of Medicine. 2015 Jan 29; 372(5):397-9.
Vassy JL, Korf BR, Green RC: How to know when doctors are ready for genomic medicine. Science Translational Medicine. 2015 May 7(287):287fs19. doi: 10.1126/scitranslmed.aaa2401.
Wolf SM, Branum R, Koenig BA, Petersen GM, Berry SA, Beskow LM, Daly MB, Fernandez CV, Green RC, LeRoy BS, Lindor NM, O’Rourke PP, Breitkopf CR, Rothstein MA, Van Ness B, Wilfond BS: Returning a research participant’s genomic results to relatives: Analysis and recommendations. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 2015; Epub ahead of print.
Wilfond BS, Fernandez CV, Green RC: Disclosing secondary findings from pediatric sequencing to families: Considering the “benefit to families”. The Journal of Law, Medicine and Ethics. 2015; Epub ahead of print.
De Castro M, Biesecker LG, Turner C, Brenner R, Witkop C, Mehlman M, Bradburne C, Green RC: Genomic medicine in the military. Genomic Medicine, In press.
Linderman MD, Green RC: Participatory personal genome sequencing in ostensibly healthy individuals. Journal of Personalized Medicine, in press.
Christensen KD, Siebert U, Green RC: Integrating genomic sequencing into clinical care: Is it worth the cost? Journal of Personalized Medicine, in press.
Selected Research Publications from the REVEAL Study
Green RC, Cupples LA, Go R, Benke KS, Edeki T, Griffith PA, Williams M, Hipps Y, Graff-Radford N, Bachman D, Farrer LA. Risk of dementia among white and African American relatives of patients with Alzheimer disease. JAMA. 2002 Jan 16; 287(3):329-36.
Cupples LA, Farrer LA, Sadovnick AD, Relkin N, Whitehouse P, Green RC. Estimating risk curves for first-degree relatives of patients with Alzheimer’s disease: the REVEAL study. Genetics in Medicine. 2004 Jul-Aug; 6(4):192-6.
Green RC, Roberts JS, Cupples LA, Relkin NR, Whitehouse PJ, Brown T, Eckert SL, Butson M, Sadovnick AD, Quaid KA, Chen C, Cook-Deegan R, Farrer LA. Disclosure of APOE genotype for risk of Alzheimer’s disease. New England Journal of Medicine. 2009 Jul 16; 361(3):245-54.
Taylor DH, Cook-Deegan RM, Hiraki S, Roberts JS, Blazer DG, Green RC. Genetic testing for Alzheimer’s and long-term care insurance. Health Affairs. 2010 Jan-Feb; 29(1):102-8.
Roberts JS, Chen CA, Uhlmann WR, Green RC. Effectiveness of a condensed protocol for disclosing APOE genotype and providing risk education for Alzheimer disease. Genetics in Medicine. 2012 Aug; 14(8):742-8.
Green RC, Christensen KD, Cupples LA, Relkin NR, Whitehouse PJ, Royal CD, Obisesan TO, Cook-Deegan R, Linnenbringer E, Butson MB, Fasaye G, Levinson E, Roberts JS: A randomized noninferiority trial of condensed protocols for genetic risk disclosure of Alzheimer’s disease. Alzheimers and Dementia. 2014, Epub ahead of print.
Christensen KD, Roberts JS, Whitehouse PJ, Royal CDM, Obisesan TO, Cupples LA, Vernarelli JA, Bhatt DL, Linnenbringer E, Butson MB, Fasaye G-A, Uhlmann WR, Hiraki S, Cook-Deegan R, Green RC, for the REVEAL Study Group: A randomized trial of disclosing incidental pleiotropic genetic risk information. Annals of Internal Medicine, in press.
Selected Research Publications from the PGen Study
Carere DA, Couper MP, Crawford SD, Duggan JR, Moreno TA, Mountain JL, Roberts JS, Green RC for the PGen Study Group: Design, methods, and participant characteristics of the Impact of Personal Genomics (PGen) Study, a prospective cohort study of personal genomics testing customers. Genome Medicine, 2014; 6(12):96-105.
Ostergren JE, Gornick MC, Carere DA, Kalia SS, Uhlmann WR, Ruffin MT, Mountain JL, Green RC, Roberts JS: How well do customers of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing services comprehend genetic testing results? Findings from the impact of Personal Genomics Study. Public Health Genomics, 2015; 18:216-24.
Carere DA, Kraft P, Kaphingst KA, Roberts JS, Green RC for the PGen Study Group: Consumers report lower confidence in their genetics knowledge following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Genetics in Medicine, 2015; Epub ahead of print.
Carere DA, VanderWeele T, Moreno T, Mountain JL, Roberts JS, Kraft P, Green RC: The impact of direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing on perceived risk of breast, prostate, and lung cancer: Findings from the PGen Study. BMC Medical Genomics, 2015; 8:63.
Baptista NM, Christensen KD, Carere DA, Broadley SA, Roberts JS, Green RC for the PGen Study Group: Adopting genetics: Motivations and outcomes of personal genomic testing in adult adoptees. Genetics in Medicine, in press.
van der Wouden CH, Carere DA, Maitland-van der Zee AH, Ruffin MT, Roberts JS, Green RC for the PGen Study Group: Consumer perceptions of primary care provider interactions following direct-to-consumer personal genomic testing. Annals of Internal Medicine, in press.
Selected Research Publications from the MedSeq Project
Vassy JL, Lautenbach DM, McLaughlin HM, Kong SW, Christensen KD, Krier J, Kohane IS, Feuerman LZ, Blumenthal-Barby J, Roberts JS, Lehmann LS, Ho CY, Ubel PA, Macrae CA, Seidman CE, Murray MF, McGuire AL, Rehm HL, Green RC. The MedSeq Project: a randomized trial of integrating whole genome sequencing into clinical medicine. Trials. 2014; 15(1):85.
McLaughlin HM, Ceyhan-Birsoy O, Christensen KD, Kohane IS, Krier J, Lane WJ, Lautenbach D, Lebo MS, Machini K, MacRae CA, Azzariti DR, Murray MF, Seidman CE, Vassy JL, Green RC, Rehm HL, for the MedSeq Project: A systematic approach to the reporting of medically relevant findings from whole genome sequencing. BMC Medical Genetics. 2014; 15(1):134-46.
Vassy JL, McLaughlin HL, MacRae CA, Seidman CE, Lautenbach D, Krier JB, Lane WJ, Kohane IS, Murray MF, McGuire AL, Rehm HL, Green RC: A one-page summary report of genome sequencing for the healthy adult. Public Health Genomics. 2015; 18(2):123-9.
Christensen KD, Vassy JS, Jamal L, Lehmann LS, Slashinski MJ, Perry DL, Robinson JO, Blumenthal-Barby J, Feuerman LZ, Murray MF, Green RC, McGuire AL for the MedSeq Project: Are physicians prepared for whole genome sequencing? A qualitative analysis. Clinical Genetics. 2015; Epub ahead of print.
Vassy JL, Christensen KD, Slashinski MJ, Lautenbach D, Raghavan S, Robinson JO, Blumenthal-Barby J, Feuerman LZ, Lehmann LS, Murray MF, Green RC: Someday it will be the norm: physician perspectives on the utility of genome sequencing for patient care. Personalized Medicine. 2015; 12(1):23-32.
Robinson JO, Carroll TM, Feuerman LZ, Perry DL, Hoffman-Andrews L, Walsh RC, Christensen KD, Green RC, McGuire AL, for the MedSeq Project: Participant and study decliners’ perspectives about the risks of participating in a clinical trial of whole genome sequencing. Journal of Empirical Research on Human Research Ethics, in press.
Lupo PJ, Robinson JO, Diamond PM, Jamal L, Danysh HE, Blumenthal-Barby J, Lehmann LS, Vassy JL, Christensen KD, Green RC, McGuire AL for the MedSeq Project: Patients’ perceived utility of whole-genome sequencing for their healthcare: Findings from the MedSeq Project. Personalized Medicine, in press.
Lane WJ, Westhoff CM, Boehler S, Uy JM, Aguad M, Smeland-Wagman R, Kaufman RM, Rehm HL, Green RC, Silberstein LE for the MedSeq Project: Comprehensive red blood cell and platelet antigen prediction from whole genome sequencing. Transfusion, in press.
Selected Research Publications from the BabySeq Project
Waisbren SE, Bäck DK, Liu C, Kalia SS, Ringer SA, Holm IA, Green RC: Parents are interested in newborn genomic testing during the early postpartum period. Genetics in Medicine. 2015; Jun; 17(6):501-4.